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How Do I Secure a Hard Drive Before Sending It in for Repair?

Keep your private things private.

Padlocked Hard Drive
When sending your computer out for repair, you're handing over everything on it, including your data. Options to secure a hard drive are limited.
Question: How does one secure a hard drive while sending the computer to a repair facility? I have personal financial information on my hard drive. Will just a password provide sufficient protection while the computer is in the shop? After the fact, is there a way to find out if someone has copied the files?

This presents quite the dilemma.

To answer your second question first: no. There’s no way to determine if your files have been viewed or copied.

As for protecting your data, there’s no guaranteed solution. I’ve even heard of companies electing not to repair a hard drive because doing so would expose sensitive data to repair technicians.

Your options are somewhat limited, but if you can plan ahead, there’s a chance of preserving security.

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Securing a hard drive

Securing a hard drive from the eyes of a nosey repair technician can be difficult. The proper solution is to encrypt sensitive data separately from the operating system, but this must be done before repairs are needed. Without that, it all boils down to trust.

Physical security

The problem is basic. Handing your computer — or even just its hard disk — to a technician for repair violates one of the fundamental principles of computer security: if ‘s not physically secure, it’s not secure. Period.

That’s true regardless of the reason. Handing your computer over to anyone is fundamentally not secure.

It all boils down to trust. In an ideal world, a trustworthy technician would work on your machine. In the real world, we’ve all heard stories of data being exposed or stolen by the folks performing repairs.1

So what to do?

Plan ahead with encryption

The only secure solution is to encrypt your hard drive or the sensitive data you store on it.

You might opt for whole-disk encryption. The problem is, the technician might still need access to the disk to fix your machine — meaning you’ll have to share the decryption key so they can boot the system. After doing so, they’ll have access to everything.

The more practical solution would be to encrypt only your data using tools like VeraCrypt, BoxCryptor, or others.

When your data is not “mounted” (the approach both of those tools use to access your encrypted data), your technician can work on your machine without being able to access your sensitive information.

Last-minute solutions

Encryption ahead of time is nice if you’re willing to put in the effort just in case the machine might someday need to be sent to a technician.

For most people, I suspect it may not be worth the effort.

Unfortunately, there aren’t any last-minute solutions. You might want to encrypt before you send the machine off for repair, but if it’s so broken you can’t, then you’re stuck.

There’s one possibility: if the problem you’re having is not hard-disk related, one option might be to remove the hard disk while they work on your machine. Someone would need to provide a temporary hard disk so they can work on the machine, but at least that wouldn’t have your data on it. When you get the machine back, you replace your hard drive, and hopefully all would be well.

Sadly, most problems involve the hard disk one way or another. Be it an actual hard disk failure or software configuration, what’s on the hard disk is typically at the heart of any repair work.

Application password protection

Using an application’s own password protection is better than nothing. If your bookkeeping program, word processor, or some other program provides this layer of protection, use it.

Ultimately, however, application password protection isn’t the same as taking steps to secure a hard drive. It’s best to think of it as just “keeping honest people honest”.

Here are a few of the problems with using the password protection provided by many applications.

  • Sometimes, a password doesn’t mean the data is encrypted; it simply prevents the application from opening the file without the proper password. The information in the file remains unencrypted and possibly visible.
  • Sometimes, the encryption is “light”. By that, I mean the encryption is more properly called “obfuscation” to keep the data from being easily visible. To someone truly interested in cracking the file, it’s not much of a barrier.
  • Sometimes, the encryption is incompetent. By that, I mean that there are bugs or poor decisions made in creating the software that make the encryption less than secure. Application authors are rarely security experts. The result is the file could be vulnerable to a hacker intent on breaking in.

Yes, it’s possible — probable, even — that with major applications the encryption is appropriately secure. It’s also unlikely that your technician is an expert hacker ready to crack reasonable encryption.

But, in either case, how do you know?

The bottom line is trust

Your options are few and inconvenient.

  • If you can, encrypt sensitive data ahead of time. This also protects you should your computer ever be stolen.
  • Investigate the password protection in your applications, and use it to secure your data.
  • If you have sensitive data you know is unencrypted, vulnerable, or particularly sensitive, never give that machine to someone you don’t completely trust.
  • If you can’t find someone to trust, then perhaps not repairing the system — or at least the hard drive — might be the most pragmatic solution of all.

Backing up can help

Naturally, I have to throw in a recommendation for backing up.

Backups sidestep this issue almost completely. If your hard drive dies, rather than having a technician fix it — and potentially access your data — replace it, and restore from your most recent backup. Destroy the broken drive for additional security if you like.

If the problem is not your hard drive, you could still remove or reformat it before sending it in for repair. Once the repair is complete, you would simply restore from backup. This doesn’t resolve software issues, where the technician requires access to the software on your machine, but it does provide an additional option for other hardware-related failures.

And like most of the solutions I’ve discussed, proper prior planning is required.

Do this

Consider encrypting your important data now, before you need to.

Then, learn more about security and safety each week by subscribing to Confident Computing! More confidence and less frustration — solutions, answers, and tips — in your inbox every week.

Podcast audio


Footnotes & References

1: To be clear: it’s only a tiny percentage of repair folk responsible. The catch is knowing who’s trustworthy.

47 comments on “How Do I Secure a Hard Drive Before Sending It in for Repair?”

  1. Back everything p regularly with a disk imagine program and then wipe the disk -properly -before sending in the pc for repair

  2. If possible I would put in a substitute hard drive if available.Almost everyone I know that has brought a PC in for repair has had the hard drive formatted by the tech even if you leave instructions for them now to do so.
    [link removed]

  3. My Solution – I have a second H/D that I have straped as a slave and use hardware from Manhatan (Hi-speed USB 2.0 to SATA/IDE Adapter w/powersupply about $25.00). That way I can save my data to the slave and after any repairs I just transfer my data back to my orignal H/D. Very User friendly.

  4. Sending back a laptop without a booting hard disk drive is not acceptable to at least one of the largest mfg’s (provided the problem is not the hdd). Jim’s solution above would be one the best.

  5. This is basically Jim’s ans above but with a twist. It seems to me that the simplest way is to put your sensitive data on an external drive. With your data there it doesn’t matter what happens to your computer. Basically, you don’t worry about sensitive data on your computer because it never was on your computer in the first place. BTW, I just got a 1TB drive for under $130.

    Two issues: 1) what if that external drive fails? (i.e. be sure you backup), and 2) what about sensitive data whose location you can’t control, (i.e. perhaps there’s something you’d consider “sensitive” in your registry?)

    – Leo
  6. I’m glad that there are others that have taken the words right out of my mouth. Always do you best to learn how to keep your pants at your waistline and not at your knees. LOL Shawn Patrick from Toronto, Canada

  7. When I get a new computer or install a new HDD, the the first thing is to make an image of the HDD with Acronis True Image to external media. Then make regular image backups. Before turning the computer over to someone else, Wipe the HDD and put the orignal image back on it.

  8. Some very good suggestions. Thanks. However one of my concerns, not covered, is how to securely lockdown one’s email client prior to handing over the computer? Seems to me that email itself often contains a huge amount of personal data. Mine sure does. Password protection of the app is sometimes possible, but useless, as so easily broken.

    Just a word here too about the security passwords built into laptops. These provide very good protection, too good, as I found out to my lasting regret when I spilt a BIT of water onto the k’board. Some of the keys shorted and I was no longer able to enter a part of my password, so was permanently locked out of my laptop. An external USB keyboard of course was no help at all. These passwords are so built-in esp. the SVP which I believe resides in a hidden chip on the m’board, that you’re hosed if you forget them or have a disaster like mine. Seems there’s no password unlocking utilty around that can recover them. Well I certainly hadn’t forgotten mine. So be warned!

    If anyone’s got any lateral thinking on a solution for this, other than a new MB, please reply.

    I store all my mail folders on an encrypted TrueCrypt drive. Without the password, they can’t be seen.

    – Leo
  9. Hi

    Thanking Leo.
    Regarding this problem how a technicine is going to repair your computer if the hard disk is empty ?
    I was rather thinking of a deontological protection.

    The technician will boot from a diagnostic CD or other media.

    – Leo
  10. I know techs who say they never pay any attention to what’s on a hard drive and I know techs who say they always look at what files are on them. Some of the latter say they just look to see what the person has in their music and picture folders. One guy was honest enough to tell me that he goes through the files of every hard drive that comes through his shop, looking to see what (if any) porn pics the person has on there.

    So the basic rule is, never have anything saved on your hard drive that you’d be embarrassed to have a computer tech see if he snoops through your stuff.

    • Unfortunately, most technicians wouldn’t allow it. The job takes usually takes longer with someone asking questions, making useless suggestions etc. I don’t mind it so much if I’m getting paid by the hour. :-)

    • Mostly because repair people are often in other places miles away. Some are large corporations that dont’ allow random strangers into their work areas. And some technicians work on their schedule, not yours.

  11. The obvious solution that comes to mind is to learn to do your own repairs. It is not nearly as difficult as many people seem to think. You can find videos on YouTube about diagnosing problems and replacing components, and once you get into it, you will probably find yourself wondering why you ever paid anyone to do these things.

  12. I have two 2TB external drives that everything goes on, and to play it real safe I also have Google and Asus Cloud Storage for my docs. But I also have nothing to hide.

  13. Excellent article and some of the replies are good too:-) In particular, Jenny’s one about locking down your email client rang very loud alarm bells! I have all my user folders stored on a slave hard drive, which I could easily remove before sending my PC for repair. I also have a 10GB folder encrypted by VeraCrypt, into which I save all my sensitive data. And I do regular daily backups to external drives. But it had just never occurred to me that anyone can just click on your email client, get all your email addresses and read all the emails still stored on it! And even if I disconnected the slave drive, which contains my Windows Live storage folder, because all my emails are now IMAP, they would all just be downloaded again if anyone opened the email client while the slave drive was disconnected. And I cannot see any way round that problem at all. So if anyone has any suggestions, I would be most grateful.

    • One way to prevent people from being able to download your IMAP or POP emails is to remove the stored password from your Email program. That way anybody using your computer would have to know the password to re-download those emails. Unfortunately, Thunderbird still allows access to your already downloaded emails.

  14. Another thing to think about are “shortcuts” for your browser. The shortcuts can be easily found, copied to an external drive, then deleted from your main drive leaving just an empty folder. Shortcuts may be the most embarassing thing on your computer. If not embarassing at least it will tell them sights you frequent.

    • Sorry about using sights instead of sites. I’m at that age (over 60) that doesn’t accept new words easily. When I went to school site was a mis-spelled word. Now it is a real word. Aint wasn’t a word either bur was listed in the dictionart as a comonly mis-used abreviation for is not and are not. Times change faster than I can keep up.

  15. I have seen a couple of suggestions close to mine, but not quite the same.

    If you are talking about a corporate environment, then the standard should be that ALL work files, sensitive or not MUST only be stored on the corporate network. That way there is no sensitive data on computers that are in exposed work areas (assuming the servers have adequate physical protection) for hackers to be able to reach. And also, corporate IT is responsible for providing adequate backup of information on the servers.

    If you are talking about a personal computer then my favorite solution is to create a separate “Data” partition. This makes it easier to target files for encryption. This is half way to using an external drive.

    For home users particularly, they should look into make full use of the backup features available in Windows 8 and 10. Using the “FileHistory” tool to automatically save files to a local, but external (second) drive provides protection against physical drive death. Then using the Windows and OneDrive “Sync” feature you can have automatic ‘Offsite” backup and a “3rd” copy of each file.

    Here are some links to Win 8 and 10 specific backup articles:
    Win10’s hybrid backup system

    With a combination of File History and OneDrive, your files are automatically saved to three separate locations: your primary data drive, your external File History drive, and your secure OneDrive offsite “cloud” account — all in near-real time. This virtually guarantees that you’ll never lose an important file again!

    This one set of features is almost enough to encourage me to recommend that people upgrade to Win 10 . Win 10 now allows CONSUMERS to easily do a PROFESSIONAL grade total backup system.

    Win 8/8.1 Total Backup System: File History + RecImg.EXE + Refresh + SlimImage – Wiki

    • Unlike Fred Langa (author of the Windows Secrets article) I’m not a big fan of Windows 10’s backup. That being said, it’s better than no backup at all, and anything that gets people to actually back up is a good thing.

  16. My apple imac wouldn’t switch on after a power cut, so I had to send it off via a technician. I had not backed up for 2 weeks, so they are going to see if they can retrieve all files , as they think something has seriously grilled inside. Now, they will have access to all passwords saved in the computer etc,
    I assume if I change my email server password ( with my mini ipad which is still working!) , at least anyone untrustworthy would not be able to change passwords on paypal, amazon etc because hopefully they would not be able to access the emails in the computer after the server password change. Whereas I am still able to access my emails myself in mail on the ipad. Therefore just changing the email server password should be enough, as apposed to having to change all shopping account passwords. For the rest of the files photos, my artworks etc , I must just hope no-one will be interested in them….

    • Although it’s unlikely that a professional technician would do something like that, there’s still a chance. Personally, I’d change all of the passwords. Changing your email password wouldn’t be enough as someone with the passwords could still buy things on Amazon clean out your PayPal account, etc., and in some cases even change your passwords, as not all accounts require a verification email or text message to change a password.

    • “Now, they will have access to all passwords saved in the computer etc” I do not quite understand how and where do you store your passwords on a computer? Surely you do not store them unencrypted?

  17. Just a thought – back up everything on your hard drive using Macrium Reflect (even make an image backup), securely erase all data on your drive (you could even just reinstall Windows so it would boot.) When you get it back then you can just restore the data or the image and be ready to go.

  18. I am glad you mentioned to plan ahead before your mac breaks by encrypting your sensitive data. I recently got my computer repaired after cracking the screen. Thank you for the information on how to secure your information before fixing your computer. {Link removed}

  19. I have over 35 years of experience with PCs [I first used an IBM PC in 1983 before hard disks were available] so I don’t need external support, but I’d like to suggest a solution that means you don’t have to secure your hard disk!

    Don’t store your data on your PC; store it on an external ‘drive’. This would be appropriate to your data volume. My father has hardly any data, so he stores it on a USB3 pendrive. A friend with more data uses an external hard drive in a USB3 enclosure. I have lots of data [pictures, documents, videos etc. from over 30 years], so I use a NAS with 2TB drives in a RAID 1 format [mirroring]. These are all backed up by copying the data from the external media to another drive somewhere else on a frequent and regular basis. [I backup the 2TB NAS to an external USB3 hard disk enclosure temporarily connected to my PC with SyncBack Free software].

    In all these cases, no user data is stored on the ‘C: drive’, only Windows and installed programs. So there’s no need to secure the PC if anyone takes it away to investigate problems. The added benefit is that the C: drive only needs to be a small inexpensive SSD – 128GB – as Windows and our programs easily fit within about 50GB, and only need to be backed up about once a month [with Macrium Reflect].

    Obviously this data technique needs to be planned before your PC needs ‘fixing’, but it’s worth the effort knowing that any ‘outside user’ doesn’t have access to your data when they’re looking at your PC while they are trying to fix it …

    • Yours is a good approach. It avoids sharing sensitive data with people who should not have access to it. Many computer users are not experienced or motivated enough to follow your example, alas, at their own peril. So, when stuff happens to their computer, they are stuck with a decision: share the data or give up.

      I have been an advocate of separating private data from essential data. Essential data is what the computer needs to run and serve your needs. As you said, a small “C” drive with the OS and installed software is all that is necessary for it. For me, private data is in one folder under Dropbox, but there are alternatives. Most of that is just stuff that nobody would care to exploit, like family pictures. Other data that is sensitive is in encrypted volumes. My preference for encryption is VeraCrypt, but almost any other will serve as well.

      So, two purposes are served. One, my personal data is backed up and can be potentially shared and mirrored on any of my computers. The other, data that must remain private is encrypted. So, even if the computer were stolen, my data remains safe.

      Following Leo’s advice over the years, I also do daily backup on external hard drives. If stuff happens I may be inconvenienced, but I will not lose or share data with an untrusted person. My approach does not need extensive computer knowledge, just a bit of careful attention.

  20. I solve this problem by not having any really sensitive data on my computer. It is all on separate hard drive/cloud storage which are backed up at least daily, including any cloud storage. If the hard drive goes down, which it has once over the years, I just replace it and write back the data from backups. I’ve had cloud storage go down with data losses too, so that is not totally safe. If the computer goes down, which again is once over the years, I send it to the repair shop knowing there is very little on it in terms of sensitive data. I can plug my separate hard drive into a spare/wifes/my own laptop computer and carry on with minimum disruption.

    • That would add a layer of privacy, but encrypting you sensitive data is more effective, and it allows you access to all of your data from anywhere in the world. When I brought my computer in for repairs, I didn’t have to think of sensitive information being compromised. BoxCryptor is great for this. Whole disk encryption won’t work if you use OneDrive or Dropbox, because the data synchronized with the cloud server is unencrypted. VeraCrypt might work, but only if you have a small amount of data to be encrypted. If your encrypted volume is large, you’d have to download and upload the entire volume every time you worked on a file.

  21. I suppose I’m one of the lucky ones here. I have been building and repairing my own PCs since my MS-DOS powered desktop suffered a head crash back in the late 1980s or very early 1990s (I forget . . .), so I don’t have to worry about a technician seeing my files and passwords, or other sensitive information because when something goes wrong, I fix it myself.

    With that said, I still concern myself with securing my boxes in the event any of them are ever stolen. For Windows, I use a ‘password-less’ Microsoft account with a (locally stored) pin, and biometrics (fingerprint) access to log on. For passwords, I use LastPass with 2FA (Microsoft’s Authenticator on my smart phone). I also have all the web sites I frequent set up with 2FA that support it.

    On each of my PCs, I use BitLocker full disk encryption to secure my system and data partitions (each on a separate internal drive). I do not encrypt the partition where I store my back-up sets so I can access them if the need should ever arise. I do however encrypt, and password protect my back-ups (Macrium Reflect Free) so they cannot be accessed.

    I have set up a password to access my system, and another to access my BIOS (UEFI). Fear not, I have them memorized and written down on a piece of paper stored in a safe.

    If someone should succeed in steeling one of my machines, they will be unable to log on because they do not have my system access password, or my second factor (my fingerprints or pin), and they will not be able to boot from a USB drive to access my data (its encrypted), and they will not be able to access my UEFI settings without my password. Without my passwords and phone, my boxes are all essentially door stops for the most part. Even if a thief knows enough to wipe my passwords, they will still have to also wipe my drive(s) and re-install Windows to have anything like a usable device. The bottom line here is that my data is as safe as I can make it.


    • Bitlocker is great in case your computer is stolen, but it won’t work when you bring a computer in for repair in some cases. One example: the only time I’ve brought my machine in for repair, it was a warrantee repair for a defective keyboard. I was asked to give them the password so they could test out the keyboard before and after the new one was installed. I told them I’d open it for them to test in front of me before and after the repair. I was lucky. They agreed. Not all repair centers would do that. That was in MicroCenter. I mention the name because good service should be rewarded with a good review.

      • I agree, but I fix/replace my own hardware and I never send anything out for service (only for replacement if defective and under warranty). My use of BitLocker is to thwart thievery and to limit their ‘reward’ to only the stolen hardware. I’m sorry if I did not make that clear.


          • I agree. Since I build my own desktops, it has never occurred to me that I may run into this issue. I do have a new laptop that will be under warranty for one year. I should probably consider making changes to accommodate the potential need to send it in for service, so I don’t have to worry about that. I have an external drive already connected to it for backup purposes. I’ll have to consider how I want to make the changes. Perhaps I’ll create a new partition on the external drive and move my user’s folder tree to it (C:\users\[username]). This way, everything I add to the system is stored on the external drive. I’ll post back after I give the situation some thought.


  22. Surely the simple solution is – at least for a desktop PC – DO NOT PUT ANY DATA ON YOUR C: DRIVE.
    I have a SSD C: drive for the OS and all of my programs, a HDD for D: with all of my data.
    It is easy to remove the HDD if the PC should need repairing, though I am a tech so fix mine myself.
    Not applicable to a laptop, but why not keep sensitive data on an external drive that can more easily be kept secure and is less attractive to most thieves than a laptop.

  23. One thing that comes to mind after reading this article and the comments. It shouldn’t be necessary to give technicians access to your Windows password in case of hardware problems in most cases. Technicians have bootable live OSes, usually Linux and some even use bootable live Windows (Windows PE).


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