I feel your pain. My dissatisfaction with the keyboard on my Microsoft Surface prevents me from using it more. It’s not a bad keyboard. I’m sure that it works well for most people. It’s just not particularly suited for my large hands and fat fingers.
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The short answer to your question is yes. If you have a USB-plug keyboard, plug it in. It should start working in a few seconds. I do it all the time.
In fact, I have a friend who’s borrowing a laptop of mine that has a bad key on it. Rather than swapping out the laptop based on its usage, it’s more effective to just give her use a USB keyboard to use with it.
The only time that this may not work is if you’re dealing with an older keyboard – one with the round plugs at the end of its cable: the PS2 port, the PS2 connector, or the DIN connector. While there may be some USB adapters available for those, they may not work in a situation like this.
But if your keyboard is USB, plug it in! You can even plug in more than one keyboard. It will work.