Term:Linux« Back to Glossary Index
Linux is an operating system, just as Microsoft Windows or Apple’s MacOS are operating systems. Operating systems are the software that control the operation of a computer and provide a consistent interface, or API, that programs use to access the features and functionality of the operating system and computer.
Linux was actually written from scratch, originally by Linus Torvalds. It was modeled extremely closely after the Unix operating system, a proprietary system developed by Bell Labs. Linux is free and open source software.
There is no “generic” Linux; rather, it’s made available via various “distributions,” each tailored to meet specific criteria. Each distribution is Linux, but they are not necessarily binary compatible with each other (i.e. programs that run on one distribution may or may not run on another), and often differ greatly in the user interface and software selection presented to the user.
Popular distributions include Ubuntu (which itself is based on the Debian distribution,) Mint, Fedora, openSUSE, and more. Puppy Linux is an example of a distribution specifically designed to minimize system requirements. Even the Android OS used in many phones and tablets is based on Linux.
|Written in||C, Assembly language|
|Source model||Open source|
|Initial release||September 17, 1991|
|Marketing target||Cloud computing, embedded devices, mainframe computers, mobile devices, personal computers, servers, supercomputers|
|Platforms||Alpha, ARC, ARM, ARM64, C6x, H8/300, Hexagon, Itanium, m68k, Microblaze, MIPS, NDS32, Nios II, OpenRISC, PA-RISC, PowerPC, RISC-V, s390, SuperH, SPARC, Unicore32, x86, x86-64, XBurst, Xtensa|
|License||GPLv2 and others (the name "Linux" is a trademark)|
Linux (// (listen) LEEN-uuks or // LIN-uuks) is a family of open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution.
Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name "GNU/Linux" to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy.
Popular Linux distributions include Debian, Fedora, and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, and a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, or include a solution stack such as LAMP. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose.
Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system. Because of the dominance of the Linux-based Android on smartphones, Linux also has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Although it is used by only around 2.3 percent of desktop computers, the Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux is the leading operating system on servers (over 96.4% of the top 1 million web servers' operating systems are Linux), leads other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and is the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually eliminated all competitors).
Linux also runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, smart home technology (like Google Nest), televisions (Samsung and LG Smart TVs use Tizen and WebOS, respectively), automobiles (for example, Tesla, Audi, Mercedes-Benz, Hyundai, and Toyota all rely on Linux), digital video recorders, video game consoles, and smartwatches. The Falcon 9's and the Dragon 2's avionics use a customized version of Linux.
Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source software collaboration. The source code may be used, modified and distributed commercially or non-commercially by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
90% of all cloud infrastructure is powered by Linux including supercomputers and cloud providers. 74% of smartphones in the world are Linux-based.